The Meaning of Fascism: Looking at the Life of Mussolini Part 2
Part 2

In Part 1, we discovered how Mussolini arose from the dark shadows of Italy to found the National Fascist Party for the sole purpose of denial and destruction.Part 2 will uncover how the National Fascist Party with its strange ideology came to power, waged war on its neighboring countries, and finally fell.

Key points in this article:

  • Mussolini centralized various forces culminating in a successful coup
  • He was inclined toward an aggressive policy, betraying Britain and France to ally with Hitler
  • Similarities between Mussolini and Moon Jae-in


Variegated Proposals Draw Many Supporters

The National Fascist Party was founded upon disillusionment towards liberalism, parliamentarianism, socialism, and ambitions to create a powerful Italy.

Sometimes they would advocate leftist territorial expansion; at other times they would make proposals to stimulate socialists; and they would adjust to capitalists who were wary of socialist strikes by denouncing socialism at still other times.

Their variegated proposals thus drew many supporters from different movements, showing rapid growth.


Fascist Blackshirts and the March on Rome

Their fluctuating claims stood in stark contrast to their harsh methods.

Each Fascist member was given a black shirt and they formed militia squads to attack those with conflicting opinions.

The Blackshirts would attack union offices and facilities that were under powerful socialist leaders to lure them out onto the streets. Those who resisted were beaten or forced to drink castor oil. No one could stop them.

Seeing these rebels rampaging in the streets, more and more people who were also discontent with the state of society would join the party.

One cold and rainy day in 1922, they organized a coup d’état. Mussolini watched in triumph as 40,000 Blackshirts marched into Rome and effortlessly assumed power. This coup is known as the March on Rome.


Regime Starts with an Appearance of Pacifism

The clever new leaders chose not to launch straight into radical anarchy.

Prime Minister Mussolini decided to put the country at ease by displaying that he wasn’t a dictator.

For instance, he appointed members from outside parties into his Cabinet. He would strategically place more extreme personalities around him to make himself appear more peaceful.

He employed the same tactic in diplomacy to appear like a mediator. He supported a treaty that illegalized war, and advocated parliamentary ratification of the Washington Naval Treaty.

The people’s expectations of emancipation from the old order and the feeling of ease that accompanied their new leader’s pacifist nature gathered Mussolini more support than ever before.

The international community also began to forget his former ambitions for territorial expansion and violence. All were fooled by his calm appearance.


Completion of the One-Party Rule

But as soon as he gained passionate supporters, Mussolini discarded his pacifist act.

He resumed violent measures against opposing forces to the point where one day an MP who made a speech criticizing the fascist movement was discovered dead soon after. A secret police force was formed to gather intelligence.

The people of Italy would have suddenly realized that all parties except for the National Fascist Party had disappeared, and they were now under a one-party rule.

Scholars began to research fascism, and a fascist philosophy emerged: that the meaning of one’s existence could only be confirmed when the individual homogenized with the group.


Directing Domestic Dissatisfaction Outwards

The world economic crisis that began in the U.S. became the turning point for the Italian anarchy to become an aggressive state. The Italian streets were filled with the unemployed, and the primary industries of tourism and marine transportation dropped by 60%.

Mussolini chose to direct the people’s dissatisfaction to Ethiopia. He invaded Ethiopia under the banner of “restoring prosperity to match the Roman Empire”. He used national history to fuel leftist fervor.


Betraying Britain and France for Germany

Mussolini’s fluctuating nature was also seen in diplomatic relations with neighboring countries.

Italy began with friendly relations with Britain and France, and they were in opposition to Germany during and after Hitler’s rise.

But Mussolini discovered that many of his interests coincided with those of Germany, and felt a strong bond, both being ‘fascist’ countries. Within a year, Mussolini was seen shaking Hitler’s hand and now standing in opposition to Britain and France. It was an unbelievably quick and dramatic change.

Mussolini obviously couldn’t resist Hitler’s appraisal of him as a “politician with no equal”, and became Hitler’s pawn before he even realized it. Hitler used Mussolini to wage wars to the German Army’s advantage, and a sequence of events led directly into WWII.


Military Ineptitude Leads to Continued Defeats

But the Italian Army was not that strong. They made many attempts to invade different countries – Libya, Egypt, Greece, Yugoslavia and Russia – but always came back defeated.

Hitler also thought that the Italian army couldn’t be relied on, and used it as an assisting force only.

Mussolini himself showed ineptitude for military matters, and often kept forcing the army forward with neither enough soldiers nor food rations. Naively, he even dismissed the idea that the U.S. would join WWII.

His defeats finally led to the Allies occupying the Italian Peninsula.


A Tragic End

In his final moments, Mussolini was a wretched man.

With his numerous defeats, he could no longer keep up his charisma. His followers abandoned him, and in the end his very own Grand Council of Fascism dismissed him as the director. He was arrested, and the people rejoiced thinking the war was over.

However, German troops rescued him from prison, as Germany saw that without Mussolini, Italy was no longer their pawn. In hiding, Mussolini created a secret state called the Italian Social Republic, which was just a Nazi protectorate.

This didn’t prevent Mussolini from being chased by Italian resistance and Allied forces.

He was discovered disguised in a Nazi uniform, and rearrested. He was shot dead and his corpse, along with that of his mistress, was hung upside down in the piazza in Milan.


Similarities with Moon Jae-in

According to spiritual investigations by Master Ryuho Okawa, founder of Happy Science, the new President of South Korea, Moon Jae-in is the reincarnation of Mussolini.

Examining the lives of these seemingly irreconcilable personalities – one an infamous dictator, the other a quiet former Sergeant – and a careful future observation of Moon’s situation will reveal surprising results.

  • Like 20th century Italy, currently South Korea suffers from economic crisis, crisis in identity as a race, and crisis of failure to firmly establish democracy.
  • Mussolini and Moon both participated in radical politics as youths, and have experienced imprisonment.
  • Mussolini gained support through advocating the destruction of the old order. Moon won government power with the disillusionment of conservative politics after Park Geun-hye’s scandal.
  • Mussolini directed domestic dissatisfaction to outside countries. Moon will probably direct domestic public opinion to a collective “anti-Japan” stance for unification with North Korea.
  • Mussolini began by displaying a pacifist front to the international community. Moon appointed a pro-Japan Prime Minister probably to hide his anti-Japan stance.
  • Mussolini betrayed friendly relations with Britain and France for Germany. Moon will someday betray relations with the U.S. and Japan in an attempt to ally with North Korea and China.
  • Mussolini was inept at military matters. Similarly Moon probably has no idea what Trump is trying to do.

Souls retain their central characteristics across their incarnations.

Knowing the past lives of world leaders can help us see how they may move, and move the world with them.

The Meaning of Fascism: Looking at the Life of Mussolini Part 2
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